Tuesday, April 18, 2017

AP CHEMISTRY Chapter 1 Crib Notes – THE ATOM

Chapter 1 Crib Notes – THE ATOM                           Name:
10 points

Dalton:  Atomic Theory and the Law of Multiple Proportions
Bohr: “solar system of orbits” atomic model
N = principal quantum number, orbits, periods, levels (1 thru 7)
L = AKA “azimuthal” quantum number, blocks, shape of the orbitals, sublevels (s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3)
Ml = magnetic quantum number, orientation of the orbitals, the boxes have assigned numbers:
Ms=spin quantum number of the electron in that orbital (+1/2 or -1/2)
EXAMPLES:  Ca = [Ar]4s2  with a quantum number set of:  4,0,0,+1/2
Te = [Kr]4s24p4 with a quantum number set of:  4,1,-1,-1/2
USE CAUTION WITH "d-block" elements:  Pd = [Kr]5s24d8 with a set of 4 (not 5!!!!),2,0,-1/2
Diamagnetic = all subshells are filled/paired with electrons, elements are NOT affected by a magnet  (all electrons are paired)
Paramagnetic = all subshells are NOT completely filled/paired with electrons, elements will be affected by a magnet (some electrons are unpaired)
Rutherford:  discovered the nucleus using his gold foil experiment which led to his discovery of the proton, and he also separated radiation into alpha, beta, gamma rays using a magnet.
Thomson discovered the electron using his cathode ray tube experiment and Millikan found the charge and mass of that electron suing his oil drop experiment.
Chadwick discovered the neutron when bombarding a beryllium atom with alpha particles – what fun!
deBroglie – wave/particle nature of light
Rydberg equation:  related energy with the level the electron is on:  En = -2.178 X 10 -18 J
                                                                                                                                                           n 2
The jumpers are:  Ag, Au, Cr, Cu, Mo
Short-hand notation:  use [noble gas before it], then:
s-block:  ns1 or ns2
p-block:  ns2np 1-6
d-block:  ns2(n-1)d1-10
Anytime you see the word “ENERGY” you need to bring out these equations:
c = lѵ    c = speed of light = 3 X 108 m/s                   l= wavelength                  ѵ = frequency
E = hѵ  so:  E = hc/ ѵ
h = Planck’s constant = 6.626 X 10 -34 Js
1 m = 1 X 109 nm – need to convert anything meters to nm to find the color of the visible light
Blue = low wavelength, high frequency, high energy, 350 – 450 nm
Red = big wavelength, low frequency, low energy, 650 - 750 nm
Free response question:  10 pts
1.  Write the complete and shorthand electron configuration notation for copper and give the set of 4 quantum numbers for its last electron. (HINT:  pour it all out there)






2.  Be sure to write it as a jumper cuz it is.



CH 1. Para Vs. Diamagnetic/Quantum Numbers

CH 1.  Para Vs. Diamagnetic/Quantum Numbers      Name:
20 points
Short-hand notation:  use [noble gas before it], then:
s-block:  ns1 or ns2
p-block:  ns2np 1-6
d-block:  ns2(n-1)d1-10
1.  Write the symbol and electron configuration notation for:
potassium

 carbon

manganese

tantalum

2.  Write the symbol and the shorthand notation for:
francium

platinum

lead

osmium

n = levels or periods = 1 thru 7
l = sublevels or blocks = s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3
m = rooms in the sublevel  s = 0, p = -1,0,+1, d = -2,-1,0,+1,+2, f = -3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3
s = spin, either up +1/2 or down -1/2

3.  Draw the symbol and the last orbital box for these elements.  Then write the four quantum numbers for the last electron in that element:

beryllium

 lithium

nitrogen

molybdenum – it is a jumper!!!!


In a DIAMAGNETIC ELEMENT:  all of the electrons are spin-paired so their sub-shells are completely filled, causing them to be unaffected by magnetic fields

In a PARAMAGNETIC ELEMENT:  they are strongly affected by magnetic fields because their sub-shells are NOT completely filled with electrons.

4.  Which of the elements is diamagnetic?



5.  Which of the elements is paramagnetic?

AP CHEMISTRY JUNE BOZEMAN #4

AP Chemistry BOZEMAN #4 Coulomb's Law             Name:
11 points

1.  What is coulomb's law?

2.  What is in the atom that holds the He atom together when those protons are so close
            and repel one another?


3.  How do you find the magnitude of charges?

4.  What is ionization energy?

5.  How do you measure ionization energy?

6.  Give another name for a "shell" that starts with an "o": ________________________

7.  What piece of equipment did coulomb use to measure coulombs law?



8.  What is the photoelectric effect?



9.  Why is helium's amount of energy (2.37) higher than hydrogen's (1.31)?

10. Why does lithium have both a low peak (.52) and also a big peak (6.26)?




11.  The bigger the radius of an atom, the ____________________ the attraction.


USE:  lower or higher in the blank

AP CHEMISTRY JUNE BOZEMAN #3

AP Chemistry BOZEMAN #3 The Mole             Name:
6 points


1.  How many sig figs would be given in the answer in the CO2 question in the video?


2.  Instead of nitrogen monoxide, what is the common name for NO?


3.  How many molecules are in 5.72 grams of glucose, C6H12O6
SHOW WORK HERE:






4.  Write the balanced equation for thermite production: 
            solid aluminum and iron (III) oxide yields solid iron and aluminum oxide.





5.  What type of reaction is a thermite reaction?

(synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement)

AP CHEMISTRY JUNE BOZEMAN #2

AP Chemistry BOZEMAN #2 Chemical Analysis                   Name:
15 points

1.  CH2O is the empirical formula of what molecule?

2.  What is the molar mass of gold (give a unit!)?

3.  Notice that even though hydrogen and oxygen are diatomics, when dividing by the
            mass of each element to find moles, you only use 1 gram and 16 grams                             respectively.  What are the three steps in finding the empirical formula when        given a mass spectrum analysis?

a)

b)

c)

4.  SHOW WORK FOR POINTS IN THIS PROBLEM.  (10 points)
Nicotine is composed of C,H, and N.   A 5.250 mg sample of nicotine was combusted, producing 14.242 mg of CO2 and 4.083 mg of H2O. SIG FIGS COUNT!!!
HINT:  Don't worry about the mg - make them all grams.  It's all about the ratio, baby.
a)  What is the mass of CO2?


b)  FInd the grams of carbon in the 14.242 g of CO2 that is given:




c)   Change grams of C to grams to mols of C:



d)  What is the mass of H2O?


e)  FInd the grams of hydrogen in the 4.083 g of H2O that is given:




f)   Change grams of H to mols of H:


g)  All that is left is finding the nitrogen.  To do this, subtract the masses you got for the carbon (answer b) and the hydrogen (answer e) from the total number of grams        in the nicotine (given in the problem).  This is your grams of nitrogen.


h)  Convert your grams of nitrogen to moles of nitrogen.


i)  Divide by the smallest number of mols to find the mol ratio.  Show your work here:










j)  What is the empirical formula for nicotine?

AP CHEMISTRY JUNE BOZEMAN #1

AP Chemistry BOZEMAN #1 Alchemists         Name:
7 points


1.  What is the philosopher's stone?


2.  What is the symbol for element # 116?


3.  What is dry ice?


4.  How much is the largest bar of gold worth?


5.  How much does it weigh in pounds?


6.  How much does an average 2 by 4 Lego brick weigh in grams?


7.  The ratio of masses in a pure sample is __________________________________

            on the basis of atomic theory.

BOZEMAN ASSIGNMENTS for AP CHEMISTRY

BOZEMAN ASSIGNMENTS
Over the course of the year, we will be watching a friend of mine, Paul Andersen, in his review series found on bozemanscience.com under the AP Chemistry section.
Your job this summer is to watch the following AP Chemistry videos and answer questions on the attached worksheets for each of the videos.  There are 16 videos that we will watch.  The worksheets need to be included in the homework assignments for that month.  If you do not have internet or data send me a text and I can meet you at the school and you can use my computer.
HOMEWORK NEEDS TO BE DROPPED OFF AT THE SCHOOL OR PUT IN MY MAILBOX OR MAILED TO MY HOME ADDRESS (3540 PUBLIC WELL STREET PARIS IL 61944) OR TO THE SCHOOL (14040 East 1200 Road, Paris, IL 61944) POSTMARKED BY THE DUE DATE. 
MY CELL IS 217-264-0467.
JUNE ASSIGNMENT Part I THE ATOM due Friday June 16th: 37 points
1 - Molecules & Elements/Alchemists - 7 points
2 - Chemical Analysis - 15 points
3 - The Mole - 6 points
4 - Coulomb's Law - 9 points

JUNE ASSIGNMENT Part II PERIODIC TABLE due June 30th: 48 points
JULY ASSIGNMENT NUCLEAR due Friday July 21st:  60 points

AUGUST ASSIGNMENT STOICHIOMETRY due Friday August 11th:
24 - Metallics
25 - Covalent Networks
26 - Molecular Solids

28 - Stoichiometry