Chapter 1 Crib Notes – THE ATOM Name:
Dalton: Atomic Theory and the Law of Multiple Proportions
Bohr: “solar system of orbits” atomic model
N = principal quantum number, orbits, periods, levels (1 thru 7)
L = AKA “azimuthal” quantum number, blocks, shape of the orbitals, sublevels (s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3)
Ml = magnetic quantum number, orientation of the orbitals, the boxes have assigned numbers:
Ms=spin quantum number of the electron in that orbital (+1/2 or -1/2)
EXAMPLES: Ca = [Ar]4s2 with a quantum number set of: 4,0,0,+1/2
Te = [Kr]4s24p4 with a quantum number set of: 4,1,-1,-1/2
USE CAUTION WITH "d-block" elements: Pd = [Kr]5s24d8 with a set of 4 (not 5!!!!),2,0,-1/2
Diamagnetic = all subshells are filled/paired with electrons, elements are NOT affected by a magnet (all electrons are paired)
Paramagnetic = all subshells are NOT completely filled/paired with electrons, elements will be affected by a magnet (some electrons are unpaired)
Rutherford: discovered the nucleus using his gold foil experiment which led to his discovery of the proton, and he also separated radiation into alpha, beta, gamma rays using a magnet.
Thomson discovered the electron using his cathode ray tube experiment and Millikan found the charge and mass of that electron suing his oil drop experiment.
Chadwick discovered the neutron when bombarding a beryllium atom with alpha particles – what fun!
deBroglie – wave/particle nature of light
Rydberg equation: related energy with the level the electron is on: En = -2.178 X 10 -18 J
The jumpers are: Ag, Au, Cr, Cu, Mo
Short-hand notation: use [noble gas before it], then:
s-block: ns1 or ns2
p-block: ns2np 1-6
Anytime you see the word “ENERGY” you need to bring out these equations:
c = lѵ c = speed of light = 3 X 108 m/s l= wavelength ѵ = frequency
E = hѵ so: E = hc/ ѵ
h = Planck’s constant = 6.626 X 10 -34 Js
1 m = 1 X 109 nm – need to convert anything meters to nm to find the color of the visible light
Blue = low wavelength, high frequency, high energy, 350 – 450 nm
Red = big wavelength, low frequency, low energy, 650 - 750 nm
Free response question: 10 pts
1. Write the complete and shorthand electron configuration notation for copper and give the set of 4 quantum numbers for its last electron. (HINT: pour it all out there)
2. Be sure to write it as a jumper cuz it is.